Rabies Vaccine

Indication:

 a vaccine used to prevent rabies

Vaccination against rabies is used in two distinct situations:

  • to protect those who are at risk of exposure to rabies, i.e. preexposure vaccination.
  • to prevent the development of clinical rabies after exposure has occurred, usually following the bite of an animal suspected of having rabies, i.e. post-exposure prophylaxis.

Dose:

Pre-exposure rabies vaccination consists of three full intramuscular (i.m.) doses given on days 0, 7 and 21 or 28.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis:

for those planning a visit to a country or area at risk, especially if the area to be visited is far from major urban centers and appropriate care, including the availability of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis, cannot be assured.

post-exposure vaccination, recommended regimens:

The five-dose regimen is administered on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 into the deltoid muscle.

The four-dose regimen is administered as two doses on day 0 (one dose in the right and one in the left arm (deltoid muscles), and then one dose on each of days 7 and 21 into the deltoid muscle.

An alternative post-exposure regimen for healthy, fully immunocompetent exposed people who receive wound care plus high-quality rabies immunoglobulin plus WHO-prequalified rabies vaccines consists of four doses administered i.m. on days 0, 3, 7 and 14.

Common side effects:

  • injection site reactions (pain, swelling, itching, or redness).
  • headache.
  • dizziness.
  • muscle pain.
  • nausea.
  • stomach pain.
  •   fever.

Available rabies vaccine in egypt :

Verorab

Imovax

Purified rabies vaccine (Speeda)

Reference: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/medical_care/vaccine.html

MMR Vaccine

Indication:

It’s a vaccine used to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella.

Dose:

  • For children it’s recommended to get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 to 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 to 6 years of age.
  • The minimum interval between MMR doses is 4 weeks (28 days).

Common side effects:

  • Sore arm from the shot.
  • Fever.
  • Mild rash.
  • Temporary pain and stiffness in the joints, mostly in teenage or adult women who did not already have immunity to the rubella component of the vaccine.

Availabl MMR Vaccines in Egypt:

  • Priorix
  • Trimovax
Reference: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html

Flu (Influenza) Vaccine

  •  Every year, millions of people get the flu. The good news is that the seasonal flu vaccine can lower the risk of getting the flu by about half. Getting the yearly flu vaccine is the best way to protect yourself from the flu.
  • Most people who get the flu have a mild illness. But for some, it can be serious — and even deadly. Serious complications from the flu are more likely in babies and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and people with certain long-term health conditions — like diabetes or asthma.
  • Getting vaccinated every year is the best way to lower your chances of getting the flu. Flu vaccines can’t cause the flu. Keep in mind that getting the flu vaccine also protects the people around you. So when you and your family get vaccinated, you help keep yourselves and your community healthy.
  • This is especially important if you spend time with people who are at risk for serious illness from the flu — like young children or older adults.

Symptoms of Influenza:

    • Fever and chills
    • Cough
    • Sore throat
    • Runny or stuffy nose
    • Muscle or body aches
    • Headache
    • Feeling very tired

Some people with the flu may throw up or have diarrhea (watery poop) — this is more common in children than adults. It’s also important to know that not everyone with the flu will have a fever.

The flu is worse than the common cold. It’s a common cause of problems like sinus or ear infections. It can also cause serious complications like:

    • Pneumonia (lung infection)
    • Worsening of long-term health problems, like asthma or heart failure
    • Inflammation of the brain or heart
    • Sepsis, a life-threatening inflammatory condition

The flu is contagious, meaning it can spread from person to person. The flu can spread when:

    • Someone with the flu coughs, sneezes, or talks — and droplets from their mouth or nose get into the mouths or noses of people nearby
    • Someone touches a surface that has flu virus on it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes

People can spread the flu before they know they’re sick — and while they have the flu.

People should take influenza vaccine:

Everyone age 6 months and older

Everyone needs to get the flu vaccine every year. It’s part of the routine vaccine schedules for children, teens, and adults.

It’s important to get the flu vaccine every year. That’s important for 2 reasons: first, immunity (protection) decreases with time. Additionally, the flu viruses are constantly changing — so the vaccine is often updated to give the best protection.

People at increased risk for complications from the flu

It’s especially important for people who are at high risk of developing complications from the flu to get the vaccine every year. People at high risk for complications from the flu include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Adults age 65 years and older
  • Children younger than 5 years — and especially children younger than 2 years
  • People with long-term health conditions like asthma, diabetes, or cancer

Health care professionals and caregivers

It’s also very important for people who spend a lot of time with people at high risk for complications from the flu to get the vaccine — for example, health care professionals and caregivers.

People should not take influenza vaccine:

Children younger than 6 months should not get the flu vaccine.

Be sure to tell your doctor before getting vaccinated if you:

  • Have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to a dose of the flu vaccine or any ingredient in the vaccine (like eggs or gelatin)
  • Have had Guillain-Barré Syndrome (an immune system disorder)

If you’re sick, you may need to wait until you’re feeling better to get the flu vaccine.

Side effects of influenza vaccine:

Side effects are usually mild and go away in a few days. These side effects aren’t the flu — the flu vaccine can’t cause the flu.

Side effects from the flu vaccine may include:

  • Pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Fever
  • Upset stomach

Serious side effects from the flu vaccine are very rare.

Like any medicine, there’s a very small chance that the flu vaccine could cause a serious reaction. Keep in mind that getting the flu vaccine is much safer than getting the flu.

Types of seasonal influenza vaccine:

Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV)

IIV is approved for use in persons 6 months and older, including pregnant women and persons with chronic medical conditions.

Dose: One 0.5 ml dose is recommended for adults and children above 3 years and one 0.25 ml dose for children from 6 months to 3 years , injected into the deltoid thigh or muscle. However, children aged 6 months to 9 years who have not received seasonal influenza vaccine during the previous influenza season should receive 2 doses administered at least 4 weeks apart. Influenza vaccination in pregnancy will protect both the mother and her newborn against influenza.

N.B: The viruses included in these vaccines are inactivated so they do not cause influenza, although minor side effects may occur including local reactions at the injection site. Persons without previous exposure to influenza vaccine antigens may experience transient fever, malaise, myalgia (muscle pain) and other systemic adverse events. 

Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV)

LAIV is approved for use only in persons aged 2–49 years who do not have underlying medical conditions. The vaccine should, however, not be administered to pregnant women. LAIV is given as a nasal spray.

Dose:  One dose only; but children aged 2–8 years who have not received seasonal influenza vaccine during the previous influenza season should receive 2 doses, at least 4 weeks apart. 

Note: LAIV is made from attenuated, or weakened, viruses and does not cause influenza, although it can cause mild signs or symptoms (including rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, fever or sore throat). Most common side effects from the vaccine are mild and transient compared to symptoms of influenza infection.

References:

https://www.vaccines.gov/diseases/flu

http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/influenza/vaccination/types-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccine

HPV Vaccine

Indication:

It’s a vaccine that prevent infection by certain types of Human papillomavirus.

It may prevent 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, 60% of vaginal cancer, 40% of vulvar cancer and possibly some mouth cancer. They prevent some genital warts, with the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines that protect against HPV types HPV-6 and HPV-11 providing greater protection.

Dose:

  • It’s recommended for children to get two doses of HPV vaccine at 11- to 12-year-olds.
  • The second dose should be given 6-12 months after the first dose.
  • Those who initiate the vaccination series after age 15 years as well as those who are immunocompromised should receive three doses.

Common side effects:

  • Pain, redness, or swelling in the arm where the shot was given
  • Fever
  • Headache or feeling tired
  • Nausea
  • Muscle or joint pain

Availabl HPV Vaccines in Egypt:

Gardasil

cervarix

Reference: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/public/index.html

DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis) Vaccine

DTP vaccine can help protect your child from diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.

  • DIPHTHERIA (D) can cause breathing problems, paralysis, and heart failure. Before vaccines, diphtheria killed tens of thousands of children every year in the United States.
  • TETANUS (T) causes painful tightening of the muscles. It can cause “locking” of the jaw so you cannot open your mouth or swallow. About 1 person out of 5 who get tetanus dies.
  • PERTUSSIS (P), also known as Whooping Cough, causes coughing spells so bad that it is hard for infants and children to eat, drink, or breathe. It can cause pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death.

Most children who are vaccinated with DTP will be protected throughout childhood. Many more children would get these diseases if we stopped vaccinating.

DTP Vaccine doses:

Children should usually get 5 doses of DTP vaccine, one dose at each of the following ages:

  • 2 months
  • 4 months
  • 6 months
  • 15–18 months
  • 4–6 years

DTP may be given at the same time as other vaccines. Also, sometimes a child can receive DTP together with one or more other vaccines in a single shot.

Some children should not get DTP vaccine or should wait:

DTP is only for children younger than 7 years old. DTP vaccine is not appropriate for everyone – a small number of children should receive a different vaccine that contains only diphtheria and tetanus instead of DTP.

Tell your health care provider if your child:

  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of DTP, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies.
  • Has had a coma or long repeated seizures within 7 days after a dose of DTP.
  • Has seizures or another nervous system problem.
  • Has had a condition called Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS).
  • Has had severe pain or swelling after a previous dose of DTP or DT vaccine.

In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone your child’s DTP vaccination to a future visit.

Children with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. Children who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting DTP vaccine.

Your health care provider can give you more information.

Risks of a vaccine reaction:

  • Redness, soreness, swelling, and tenderness where the shot is given are common after DTP.
  • Fever, fussiness, tiredness, poor appetite, and vomiting sometimes happen 1 to 3 days after DTP vaccination.
  • More serious reactions, such as seizures, non-stop crying for 3 hours or more, or high fever (over 105°F) after DTP vaccination happen much less often. Rarely, the vaccine is followed by swelling of the entire arm or leg, especially in older children when they receive their fourth or fifth dose.
  • Long-term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, or permanent brain damage happen extremely rarely after DTP vaccination.

As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.

References:

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/dtap.html

Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B.  Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause mild illness lasting a few weeks, or it can lead to a serious, lifelong illness.

  • Acute hepatitis B infection is a short-term illness that can lead to fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements), and pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach.
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Most people who go on to develop chronic hepatitis B do not have symptoms, but it is still very serious and can lead to liver damage (cirrhosis), liver cancer, and death. Chronically-infected people can spread hepatitis B virus to others, even if they do not feel or look sick themselves.

Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. People can become infected through:

  • Birth (if a mother has hepatitis B, her baby can become infected)
  • Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
  • Contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • Sex with an infected partner
  • Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
  • Exposure to blood from needle sticks or other sharp instruments

Most people who are vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine are immune for life.

Hepatitis B Vaccine:

Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given as 2, 3, or 4 shots.

Infants should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and will usually complete the series at 6 months of age (sometimes it will take longer than 6 months to complete the series).

Children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not yet gotten the vaccine should also be vaccinated with three doses at 0,1 and 6 months.

Hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for certain unvaccinated adults:

  • People whose partners have hepatitis B
  • People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
  • People who have household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
  • Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids
  • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons
  • Persons in correctional facilities
  • Travelers to regions with increased rates of hepatitis B
  • People with chronic liver disease, kidney disease, HIV infection, infection with hepatitis C, or diabetes
  • Anyone who wants to be protected from hepatitis B

Hepatitis B vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Risks of vaccine reactions:

  • Soreness where the shot is given or fever can happen after hepatitis B vaccine.
  • People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Tell your provider if you feel dizzy or have vision changes or ringing in the ears.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.

Emergency hepatitis B vaccination:

If you’ve been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from the hepatitis B vaccine.

In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG), along with the hepatitis B vaccine.

HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.

Babies and hepatitis B vaccination:

Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.

Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.

Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.

All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they’ve become infected with the virus.

References:

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/hepatitis-b-vaccine/

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/?tabname=nhs-vaccination-schedule

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